Project or Grant Profile

The reality of work is changing. Millions of people find work through the platform economy. Remote work is here to stay. And companies are increasingly using AI to monitor and organise their workforce. The digital economy is transforming the global economy, and Morocco is not left behind, as the transformation is transversal and concerns most sectors of the nation’s economy. This has triggered an increase in non-standard forms of employment and precarious gig work arrangements in Morocco over the last couple of years. One of the reasons for this is little legitimacy of digital platforms and unfair resistance from traditional alternatives. Though gig workers are quickly becoming a significant portion of all employment since COVID-19 has deepened the salience of the gig economy, too many gig workers slip through the cracks in the labor laws and employee rights as it is difficult to see whether certain activities are unpaid, what kind of conditions workers are subject to, and the extent workers’ rights are being eroded by platforms. By assessing some key players in the Moroccan digital economy and rating their performance based on the five principles of Fairwork, the project team contribute towards holding the digital platforms accountable for likely unfair practices, engage stakeholders by empowering consumers to make informed choices about which platform to use, and providing a strong evidentiary basis for activists and policymakers seeking to advocate and regulate practices within the nation’s digital economy. The five principles include Fair Pay, Fair Conditions, Fair Contracts, Fair Management, and Fair representation. The project measured the performance of the platform against these principles. The principles have been discussed below.


Fair Pay – Workers, irrespective of their employment classification, should earn a decent income in their home jurisdiction after taking account of work-related costs. We assess earnings according to the mandated minimum wage in the home jurisdiction and the current living wage.

Fair Conditions – Platforms should have policies in place to protect workers from foundational risks arising from the processes of work and should take proactive measures to protect and promote the health and safety of workers.

Fair Contracts – Terms and conditions should be accessible, readable and comprehensible. The party contracting with the worker must be subject to local law and must be identified in the contract. Regardless of the worker’s employment status, the contract is free of clauses which unreasonably exclude liability on the part of the service user and/or the platform.

Fair management – There should be a documented process through which workers can be heard, can appeal decisions affecting them, and be informed of the reasons behind those decisions. There must be a clear channel of communication to workers involving the ability to appeal management decisions or deactivation. The use of algorithms is transparent and results in equitable outcomes for workers. There should be an identifiable and documented policy that ensures equity in the way workers are managed on a platform (for example, in the hiring, disciplining, or firing of workers).

Fair Representation – Platforms should provide a documented process through which worker voice can be expressed. Irrespective of their employment classification, workers should have the right to organise in collective bodies, and platforms should be prepared to cooperate and negotiate with them.

The findings of the project were streamlined along these principles:

Fair Pay – Only one platform, Kaalix, could evidence that the delivery charge is high enough to ensure workers’ gross pay is at or above the minimum hourly wage of 15.5 Moroccan Dirhams (MAD) after all work-related costs, including motorbike/car rental, insurance and gas, have been accounted for at the time of writing. No platform could evidence a gross pay that was at or above the living wage (28.5 MAD at the time of writing) after work-related costs were accounted for.

Fair Conditions – None of the five platforms assessed were able to evidence that they take meaningful measures to mitigate task-specific risks. Whilst some platforms could provide evidence that shows that workers are provided with equipment and gear, these were provided at a cost. One platform, Glovo, provides its workers with comprehensive social security benefits, which must be highlighted as a best practice. Glovo also provides an SOS button, and reviews delivery zones to exclude areas that are deemed dangerous (e.g. where workers may face harassment). These should be highlighted as best practices to mitigate risks associated with lone working.

Fair Contracts – Glovo was the only platform that could evidence that the terms and conditions offered to workers meet basic standards of fairness. A copy of the terms and conditions is offered in Arabic and French, and the platform also offers in-person help to provide couriers with further information on contractual terms.

Fair management – Two platforms, Kaalix and Glovo, could evidence clear and functioning channels of communication between workers and management, with couriers able to reach their supervisors on the phone and via WhatsApp. In the case of Glovo, evidence indicates that workers are also given an option to visit offices in five major cities in Morocco, and have their queries addressed at a timely manner.

Fair Representation – No platform included in this year’s study could evidence the recognition of, or willingness to, negotiate with a worker body or trade union. Whilst some platforms could evidence conducting focus groups and surveys with their workers, no additional rights were provided for workers to organise, collectively express their wishes, and be listened to.

Dr. Frederick Pobee is a lecturer at the Department of Business Administration at the University of Professional Studies. He is a team member of the Fairwork Morocco Team. His contribution to the project is evidenced in every phase, including desk research, platform and worker interviews, platform interview and analysis of worker interviews, and the writing and publication of the report.

The URL link to the project is